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Stored procedures
Moves backward several records from the current position in the data file, according to a specified item.
The destination record is read and loaded in memory: the HFSQL variables are updated (Customer.Name for example, which means the Name item of Customer file).
Several cases may occur after the call to <Source>.Backward:
  • no other record exists in the data file: <Source>.Out returns True. No read operation is performed.
  • the function tries to lock a record that is already locked in read-only: HErrorLock returns True and <Source>.Out returns True.
    PHP Management of locks not available in PHP.
    Java Access by JDBC: The management of locks is not available for databases accessed by JDBC.
This function can be used with the data files, HFSQL views or queries.
// Go back to the 200th record of the Customer data file
// according to the CustName key
Customer.Backward(CustName, 199)
<Result> = <Source>.Backward([<Item> [, <Step> [, <Options>]]])
<Result>: Boolean
  • True if the backward move was performed in the data file,
  • False if an error occurred (lock, end of file, etc.): the record is not read. HError is used to identify the error.
<Source>: Type corresponding to the specified source
Name of the data file, view or query used.
<Item>: Optional character string
Name of item according to which the browse is performed. If this name is not specified, <Source>.Backward handles the last item in the data file used by the last HFSQL function (function starting with "H").
OLE DBNative Connectors (Native Accesses) All the items used to move backward in the file are considered as being key items.
PHP The <Step> parameter is mandatory if this parameter is not specified.
<Step>: Optional integer
Number of steps backward (which means number of records to browse). By default, <Step> = 1.
<Options>: Optional Integer constant (or combination of constants)
  • the lock mode applied to the record read. By default, the lock performed corresponds to the current lock.
    hLockNoNo lock: the record can be read or modified by another application during the reading.
    hLockReadWriteLock in read/write: the record currently read cannot be read or modified by another application.
    hLockWriteLock in write mode: the record currently read can be read by another application but it cannot be modified by another application.

    OLE DBNative Connectors (Native Accesses) The lock options will have no effect if the locks are not supported by the OLE DB provider or by the Native Connector.
  • the management of duplicates during the browse. By default, all the duplicates are browsed.
    hDistinctWhen a browse is performed on a key item, a single record is browsed if duplicates are found.
Hyper File 5.5 <Options> is ignored.
PHP <Options> is ignored.
Java Access by JDBC: <Options> is ignored.

Read operation according to a key item or not

In all cases, the browse operation must have been initialized by one of the following functions: <Source>.ReadFirst, <Source>.First, <Source>.ReadSeekFirst, <Source>.SeekFirst, <Source>.ChangeKey, <Source>.RestorePosition.
If the item used is a key item:
  • if the hDistinct constant is not enabled, <Source>.Backward moves backward of <Step> key values from the current position.
  • if the hDistinct constant is enabled, <Source>.Backward moves backward of <Step> distinct key values from the current position. If duplicates are found, a single duplicate is read.
If the item used is not a key item:
  • the hDistinct constant is not available,
  • <Source>.Backward moves backward of <Step> active records from the current position.


The memos associated with the record can be automatically read (or not) when reading the record. <Source>.SetMemo is used to customize this automatic read operation.
If the memos are supported, the associated text memos are read when the record is read. The binary memos are read only when they are explicitly used (<Source>.ExtractMemo).


WINDEVWEBDEV - Server codeReports and QueriesUniversal Windows 10 AppiPhone/iPadJavaUser code (UMC)External languageAjaxHFSQLHFSQL Client/ServerHyper File 5.5OLE DBNative Connectors (Native Accesses)


By default (no lock variable specified), the lock performed corresponds to the current lock mode.
If a lock is requested (hLockWrite or hLockReadWrite constant), the record will be read and locked only if this record is not already locked by another application.
Component: wd280hf.dll
Minimum version required
  • Version 25
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